Title, Gorkhaland Movement: A Study in Ethnic Separatism. Author(s). A K Samanta. Publication (Day/Month/Year), Publisher, A.P.H. Publishing. City, New. Available in the National Library of Australia collection. Author: Samanta, Amiya K; Format: Book; xxx, p. ; 23 cm. Gorkhaland Movement by Amiya K. Samanta, , available at Book Gorkhaland Movement: A Study in Ethnic Separatism.
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Gorkhaland is proposed statehood demand by the people of the hill regions of District Darjeeling Kalimpong and Duars area demanding separate state from the Indian state of West Bengal within India. The demand for a separate administrative unit in Darjeeling has existed sincewhen the Hillmen’s Association of Darjeeling submitted a memorandum to Minto-Morley Reforms demanding a separate administrative setup.
In the s, Subhash Ghisingh raised the demand for the creation of a state called Gorkhaland within India to be carved out of the hills of Darjeeling and areas of Dooars and Siliguri terai contiguous to Darjeeling. The Gorkhas have been demanding for separation from West Bengal since on the grounds that they are culturally, ethnically different from West Bengal.
The demand took a violent turn, which led to the death of over 1, people. Gorkhalxnd agitation ultimately led to the establishment of a semiautonomous etynic in called the Darjeeling Gorkha Hill Council DGHC to govern certain areas of Darjeeling district.
The fourth DGHC elections were due in However, the government decided not to hold elections and instead made Subhash Ghisingh the sole caretaker of the DGHC till a new Sixth Schedule tribal council was established. Resentment among the former councillors of DGHC grew rapidly. Riding on a mass support for Prashant Tamangan Indian Idol contestant from Darjeeling, Bimal quickly capitalized on ij public support he received for supporting Prashant, and was able to overthrow Ghisingh from the seat of power.
He went on to found the Gorkha Janmukti Morcha raising the demand a state of Gorkhaland. He was stabbed to movemnet allegedly by Gorkha Janmukti Morcha supporters on 21 Mayin Darjeeling, which led to a spontaneous shutdown in the three Darjeeling gorkhakand sub-divisions of Darjeeling, Kalimpong and Kurseong.
On 8 Februarythree GJM activists were shot dead one of whom succumbed to her injuries later by the police as they tried to enter Jalpaiguri district on a padyatra led by Bimal Gurung from Gorubathan to Jaigaon. This led to violence in the Darjeeling hills and an indefinite strike was called by GJM that lasted 9 days.
In the West Bengal state assembly election, held on 18 AprilGJM candidates won three Darjeeling hill assembly seats, proving that the demand for Gorkhaland was still strong in Darjeeling. The memorandum of agreement for the formation of a Gorkhaland Territorial Administration GTAa semi-autonomous administrative body for the Darjeeling hills, was signed on 18 July While Mamata implied that this would be the end of the Gorkhaland movement, Bimal Gurung reiterated that this was just another step towards statehood.
Both spoke publicly at the same venue in Pintail Village near Siliguriwhere the tripartite agreement was signed. Ethnoc is currently the chief executive of the GTA. However, over the last few months, the GJM has expressed severe dissatisfaction over the functioning of the GTA and have revived the call for the separate state of Gorkhaland. On 30 Julythe Congress Working Committee unanimously passed a resolution to recommend the formation of a separate Telangana state from Andhra Pradesh to the INC-led central government.
Following a 3 days bandh GJM announced an indefinite bandh from 3 August. With the West Bengal government armed with Calcutta high court order declaring the bandh as illegal, the government toughened its stand by sending a total of 10 companies of paramilitary force to quell any violent protest and arresting prominent GJM leaders and workers. Between June and Septemberthere was another agitation in Darjeeling.
This was interpreted as an imposition of an alien culture by the Gorkha Janamukti Morcha GJM administered area where the majority of the people speak Nepali.
They were stepped up around 5—8 June when the Chief Minister was visiting the regions.
After initially ignoring the situation, the Government softened its tone when the protests and rallies intensified. After a cabinet meeting at Raj Bhavan in Darjeeling on 8 June, the Government clarified that Bengali will be an optional subject in the hills.
But the GJM leadership decided to not take this on face value, and intensified the protests further. The protesters then revived the old demand for a separate state of Gorkhaland.
Gorkhaland: A Study in Ethnic Separatism – Amiya K. Samanta – Google Books
There were a few clashes between the police and the agitators initially. Strikes were called on a few occasions. The situation worsened on 15 June, when the police raided a GJM office and seized spade,sickle,bow,arrow,hoe,and shovel.
This was followed by violent clashes between the police and the agitators. And following this, the GJM called an indefinite strike and shut down in the region. There were widespread instances of violence including riots, arson, torching of vehicles, government properties and houses. In one of these protests, the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway was torched by the protesters. There have been multiple injuries of both the Gorkhaland supporters and security personnel. A total of 11 people have died in the protests till date.
On 9 July, the protests reach New Delhi. Supporters staged a march from Raj Ghat to Jantar Mantar. On 29 August, the state Government called a meeting with the hill parties. But the meeting was fruitless and they could not arrive at a conclusion. This was followed movfment another round of talks where there was a consensus to end the shutdown.
The gor,haland met the Home Minister on 19 September. This was followed by the hills slowly returning to normalcy. On 26 September, internet services were restored in the region. Even after the strike separxtism called off, there were a few stray incidents of violence and protests in the region. And so on 27 October, the Supreme Court directed the Centre to withdraw 7 of the 15 central armed forces deployed in the region.
Bimal Gurung has been in hiding separaatism then for fear of being arrested under the Unlawful Activities Prevention Act. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Learn how and when to remove these template messages.
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Archived from the original on 1 November Retrieved 20 March The Times of India.
Gorkhaland Movement : A Study In Ethnic Separatism by A. K. Samanta – Bookshop of India
Archived from the original on 4 November Archived from the original on 11 March Retrieved 5 August Retrieved 3 August Retrieved 19 September All about Darjeeling crisis, Gorkhaland demand”. How Bengali language derailed peace in Darjeeling”. Centre rushes more paramilitary personnel to restore normalcy”.
Home ministry orders withdrawal of 1, paramilitary personnel from Darjeeling – Firstpost”. BJP leaders visit Darjeeling, claims credit for ending day strike”. GJM demands restoration of Internet services in hills”. The Echo of India. Poddar, Prem; Prasad, Anmole Indra Bahadur Rai in Translation.
Subba, Tanka Bahadur Ethnicity, State, and Development: Archived from the original on A Study in Ethnic Separatism.
Quest for an Identity. Kumar, Braj Bihari Small States Syndrome separattism India. Sub-Regional Movement in India: With Reference to Bodoland and Gorkhaland. The Politics of Autonomy: In United Service Institution of India.
Low Intensity Conflicts in India: West Bengal in Doldrums. Essays on Cultural History of North Bengal.