Eurindia, volumen 1 and Eurindia, volumen 2. The preeminent Argentine cultural nationalist is Ricardo Rojas. Poet, historian .. He wrote La literature argentina and Eurindia, in addition to four other books. In this collection of texts, Ricardo Rojas outlines various aspects of his concept of Eurindian culture. He describes this culture in his book titled Eurindia as the.
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We focus our analysis on a work specifically devoted to Amerindian art: The Syllabary of the American Decoration. When does the history of the Argentine nation begin?
Who were their founding fathers? What is the cultural identity that defines it?
Eurindia, volumen 1 by Ricardo Rojas
Rojas plays a key role among the nationalist intellectuals who provided answers to these questions by assigning the indigenous people and the Spaniards the role of architects of our homeland; a position which responds to a dominant trend in redefining the Latin American political map in the early 19th century triggered by Spain having lost its former colonies.
In this context, the idea of nation is founded not only on the acceptance, but also in the exaltation of the virtues of the miscegenation between Spaniards and indigenous peoples. In this regard, in Eurindiapublished inRojas proclaims: Exoticism is necessary for our political growth as Indigenism is necessary for our aesthetic culture. We do not want gaucho savagery or cosmopolitan barbarism.
We want a national culture, as a source of a national civilization, an art that is the expression of both.
Obras de Ricardo Rojas: Eurindia. 1. ed – Ricardo Rojas – Google Books
Eurindia is the name of this ambition. The former, by means of the analysis of their art techniques, design, composition, symbologyand the latter, through archaeological research.
A connoisseur of both archeology and local and American folklore, Rojas reclaims the importance of researchers, not only in the specific field of these disciplines, but of culture in general. In his Historia de la literatura argentina.
These images, integrated into modern life through design, would sustain the development of an American aesthetic sensibility.
The American aesthetic sensibility: In the foreword of the SilabarioRojas resumes the goals proposed decades before: Folklore and archaeology are my starting points; education and industry are my means; nationality and beauty are my ends [ On the one hand, he highlights the need of an aesthetics based on indigenous art; on the other hand, he defends the use of European aesthetic categories in his analysis.
He is interested in highlighting the specific significance of American symbology but simultaneously sustains that their designs must be adapted to the industrial manufacturing settings.
He proposes, as a starting point, to consolidate a national identity with an American consciousness, but he ends up dissolving American history in the history of humankind. When interpreting the symbolic meaning of the signs of indigenous art, Rojas turns to his specialized readings, referring to prestigious americanists, historians and archaeologists in order to propose that these signs be adapted to industrial life without losing their original meaning.
Rojas solves the evident dichotomy between the original meanings typical of non-Western cultures and the latent connotations in industrial designs through an esoteric  universalism which posits that all images of all times and places are archetypal images: Symbols of our homeland and our world: But how do we reconcile this proposal with the idea of a single, universal and eternal human essence?
Do both the savage and the civilized participate in this essence? The truth is that Rojas does not even mention the need to produce some kind of answer. Resuming Rojas esoteric answer to the issue of the dissolution of that which is American in that which is Universal, it ricard interesting to note that in the fourth part ekrindia the book, dedicated to Symbols,  lies the key to his foundations: In the seventh chapter, he states: If the internal analogies among several gojas cultures surprise the scholar in the New World, imposing the necessary hypothesis of prehistoric contacts or references to a common primordial source, then no less surprising is the abundance of analogies between these archaeological sites in America and those in Chaldea, Egypt, Mycenae, Etruria, Persia, India, China, Ireland and even primitive Spain, imposing the geological hypotheses of a former continent – the fabulous Atlantis – increasingly necessary for explaining similarities among those antique civilizations.
He also appeals to their scientific, philosophical and esoteric sources: In her book Secret Doctrineshe maintains that: In fact, for Rojas the national value does not reside in the contemporary indigenous culture but in that rkcardo a distant past.
The issue has been resolved that barbarian nations made a big incursion, not many centuries ago, which, like the barbarians who overran Europe, defeated the primitive civilization of the valley [ By means of his esoteric and universalist conception, he understands that the American past provides us with an eternal and universal sensibility that rojzs its supernatural and mystical content with the aesthetic and functional needs of modern industry: It will be objected that once the Silabario had been integrated and its industrial adaptation renewed, nothing would remain of its archaeological character.
But yes, its geometric designs, its rhythm, its spirit and even its intact themes would remain [ Modern humans receive from ancient humans the supreme knowledge existing in nature an extension of the Divinewhich is expressed in the signs of their art. The pre-Hispanic images in the Silabario. As previously observed, in the Silabario, Rojas proposes an aesthetic description as well as an investigation into the symbolism of American art in order to incorporate it to contemporary life.
However, he does not address this description or this investigation by making an analysis of the art produced by the different cultures defined so far.
Instead, he bases his analysis on the many variables concerning plastic production, establishing general principles for all Ricarod art.
Accordingly, eurnidia organizes the book into parts that correspond to descriptive items that he illustrates with examples from pre-Hispanic America, from Mesoamerica to the Argentine Northwest. In other words, he builds the category American art : In the first part, Los Signos Signshe enumerates iconographic themes, such as phytomorphic, zoomorphic, mythomorphic, etc.
In this chapter, located in the centre of the sevenfold structure and expressing his adherence to the thesis of the existence of the lost continent, an inflection takes place from the descriptive to the interpretative, founded in the idealistic principle of universal archetypes.
Basically, these comparisons take the Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans as a defining parameter for ancient civilizationnamely: In the sixth part, La Vida Lifehe summarizes the social, economic, and political conditions of the American cultures, and in the seventh, El Ideal Idealhe develops his proposal for integrating the American symbols to modern life through their use in the ornamentation of cities, people, houses, and books. We finally arrive [ As a historical document, an aesthetic repertoire, a theoretical essay, and an academic text, the Silabario plays a fundamental role when reviewing the historiography of pre-Hispanic art in Argentina.
Undoubtedly, it deserves to be studied and analysed in depth. The work here presented represents the starting point of this mission. Obras Completasvol II: Gobierno de la pcia. La Cultura Argentina, La pintura de Historia: Centro Argentino de Investigadores en Artes, Terceras Jornadas de Estudios e Investigaciones. Cuzco-Buenos Aires, ruta de intelectualidad americana Las Artes en el Debate del Quinto Centenario. Revista del Museo Nacional de La Platavol.
Historia de la literatura argentina. Los modernos, Buenos Aires: He was appointed professor of American Archaeology at the University of Buenos Aires in and, indirector of the Museum of Natural Eurundia, National University of La Plata, rifardo position he held until his death. Inthe Argentine Geographic Institute entrusted him with archaeological and ethnological explorations in northwestern Argentina and the Rio de La Plata.
In he excavated the Paya site in Salta. Losada,pp. ROJAS,op cit, p. At the beginning of the fourth part he refers to the central location of the chapter of symbols: The pre-Hispanic images in the Silabario