Date, Source, Ludwig Borchardt: Das Grabdenkmal des Königs Sahure. Band II: Die Wandbilder, Leipzig Author, Ludwig Borchardt. More than a hundred years ago, Ludwig Borchardt (–) – who also discovered the bust of Nefertiti – excavated the pyramids of Abu Sir. The finds were. Abusir XVI: Sahure C the Pyramid Causeway: history and decoration program in the Old Kingdom–By . Sahure’s Mediterranean ships published by Borchardt.
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Sahure is considered to be one of the most important kings of the Old Kingdom of Egypthis reign being a political and cultural high point of the Fifth Dynasty. During Sahure’s time on the throne, Egypt had important trade relations with the Levantine coast.
Sahure launched several naval boechardt to modern day Lebanon to procure cedar trees, people possibly slaves and exotic items. He also ordered the earliest attested expedition to the land of Puntwhich brought back large quantities of myrrhmalachite and electrum.
Sahure is shown celebrating the success of this venture in a relief from his mortuary temple which shows him tending a myrrh tree in the garden of his palace named ” Sahure’s splendor soars up to heaven “. This relief is the only one in Egyptian art depicting a king gardening. Sahure sent further expeditions to the mines of turquoise and copper in Sinai.
He also possibly ordered military campaigns against Libyan chieftains in the Western Desert, bringing back livestock to Egypt. Sahure had a pyramid built for himself in Abusirthereby abandoning the royal necropolises of Saqqara and Gizawhere his predecessors had built their pyramids.
This decision was possibly motivated by the presence of the sun temple of Userkaf in Abusir, the first such sahjre of the Fifth Dynasty. The Pyramid of Sahure is much smaller than the pyramids of the preceding 4th Dynasty but the decoration of his mortuary temple is more elaborate. The architects borchardf Sahure’s pyramid complex introduced the use of palmiform columns that is columns whose capital has the form of palm leaveswhich would soon become a hallmark of ancient Egyptian architecture.
Sahure is also known to have constructed a sun temple called ” The Field of Borchadrt “, and although it is yet to be located it is presumably in Abusir as well. Excavations at the pyramid of Sahure in Abusir under the direction of Miroslav Verner and Tarek El-Awady in the early s provide a picture of the royal family of the early Fifth Dynasty. In particular, reliefs from the causeway linking the valley and mortuary temples of the pyramid complex reveal that Sahure’s mother was queen Neferhetepes II.
This is further confirmed by the discovery of Sahure’s cartouche in the mortuary temple of Userkaf at Saqqara, indicating that Sahure finished the structure started most probably by his father. This contradicts older, alternative theories bochardt to which Sahure was the son of queen Khentkawes I believed to be the wife of the last pharaoh of the preceding 4th DynastyShepseskaf and a brother to either Userkaf or Neferirkare.
Sahure is known to have been succeeded by Neferirkare Kakai[note 4] who was believed to be his brother  until On this year, a relief originally adorning the causeway of Sahure’s pyramid and showing Sahure seated in front of two of his sons, Ranefer and Netjerirenre,  was discovered by the Egyptologists Miroslav Verner and Tarek El-Awady.
They propose that Netjerirenre may have later seized the throne for a brief reign under the name ” Shepseskare “, although this remains conjectural.
Borchardt Sahure 17 Stock Photo: – Alamy
Netjerirenre bore several religious titles corresponding to high ranking positions in the court and which suggest that he may have acted as a vizier for his father. Boorchardt relative chronology of Sahure’s reign borchaardt well established by historical records and contemporary artefacts, showing that he succeeded Userkaf and was in turn succeeded by Neferirkare Kakai. In contrast, the near contemporary annal of the Fifth Dynasty known as the Palermo Stone preserves his second, third, fifth and sixth years on the throne as well as his final year of reign and even records the day of his death as the 28th of Shemu II corresponding to the end of the ninth month.
This number would be only one year more than the Turin Canon’s twelve-year figure for Sahure. It is also closer to the 13 years figure given in Manetho ‘s Aegyptiacaa history of ancient Egypt written in the Third century BC. Sahure appears in two further historical records: The absolute dates of Sahure’s reign are uncertain but most scholars date it borchard the first half of the 25th century BC. Historical records and surviving artefacts suggest that contacts with foreign lands were numerous during Sahure’s reign.
Furthermore, these contacts seem to borcnardt been mostly economic rather than military in nature. Reliefs from his pyramid complex show that he possessed a navy comprising cubits long boats c.
These bears appear in association with 12 red-painted one-handled jars from Syria and are thus likely to constitute a tribute. Trade contacts with Byblos certainly took place during Sahure’s reign and indeed excavations of the temple of Baalat-Gebal yielded an alabaster bowl inscribed with Sahure’s name. Finally, a piece of thin gold stamped to a wooden throne and bearing Sahure’s cartouches has been purportedly found during illegal excavations in Turkey among a wider assemblage known as the “Dorak Treasure”.
In his last year on the throne, Sahure sent the first documented  expedition to the fabled land of Punt. However, it is known today that preceding Egyptian kings had a high seas navy too, in particular Khufu during whose reign the oldest known harbor, Wadi al-Jarfon the Red Sea was operating. In his last year of reign Sahure sent another expedition abroad, this time to the copper and turquoise mines of Wadi Maghareh   and Wadi Kharit in Sinaiwhich had been active since at least the beginning of the Third Dynasty.
Sahure’s military career is known primarily from reliefs from his mortuary complex.
It apparently consisted of campaigns against the Libyans in the Western desert. The campaigns yielded various livestock and Sahure is shown smiting local chieftains. The Palermo stone corroborates some of these events and also mentions expeditions to Sinai and to the exotic land of Punt. However, this same scene of the Libyan attack was used two hundred years later in the mortuary temple of Pepi II — BC and in the temple of Taharqa at Kawabuilt some years after Sahure’s lifetime. In particular, the same names are quoted for the local chieftains.
Therefore, there is the possibility that Sahure too was copying an even earlier representation of this scene. The majority of Sahure’s activities in Egypt recorded in the Palermo stone are religious in nature. During the fifth year of his reign alone the stone mentions the making of a divine barge, possibly in Heliopolisthe exact quantity of daily offerings of bread and beer to RaHathorNekhbet and Wadjet fixed by the king and the gift of land to various temples.
Sahure also reorganised the cult of his mother Nepherhetepes II, whose mortuary complex had been built by Userkaf in Saqqara. Archeological evidence suggests that Sahure’s further building activities were concentrated in Abusir, where he constructed his pyramid, and its immediate vicinity which probably housed his sun temple.
The palace of Sahure, called “Uetjes Neferu Sahure”, ” Sahure’s splendor soars up to heaven “, is known from an inscription on tallow containers discovered in February in Neferefre ‘s mortuary temple.
South of Egypt, a stele bearing Sahure’s name was discovered in the diorite quarries located in the desert north-west of Abu Simbel in Lower Nubia. The main pyramid of Sahure’s mortuary complex exemplifies the decline of pyramid building, both in terms of size and quality.
Yet, the accompanying mortuary temple is considered to be the most sophisticated one built up to that time. Sahure chose to construct his pyramid complex in Abusirthereby abandoning both Saqqara and Gizawhich had been the royal necropolises up to that time.
A possible motivation for Sahure’s decision was the presence of the sun temple of Userkaf. These include a relief showing Sahure tending a myrrh tree in his palace in front of his family,  a relief depicting brown bears and a relief showing the bringing of the pyramidion to the main pyramid and the ceremonies following the completion of the complex. The many reliefs of the mortuary and valley temples also depict, among other things, a counting of foreigners by or in front of the goddess Seshat and the return of an Egyptian fleet from Asiaperhaps Byblos.
Some of the low relief-cuttings in red granite are still in place at the site. The mortuary temple featured the first palmiform columns of any Egyptian temple,  massive granite architraves inscribed with Sahure’s titulary overlaid with copper, black basalt flooring and granite dados. Its inner core is made of roughly hewn stones organized in steps and held together in many sections with a thick mortar of mud. This construction technique, much cheaper and faster to execute than the stone-based techniques of the 4th Dynasty, fared much worse over time.
Owing to this, Sahure’s pyramid is now largely ruined and amounts to little more than a pile of rubble showing the crude filling of debris and mortar constituting the core, which became exposed after the casing stones were stolen in antiquity. While the core was under construction, a corridor was left open leading into the shaft where the grave chamber was built separately and later covered by leftover stone blocks and debris.
This construction strategy is clearly visible in later unfinished pyramids, in particular the Pyramid of Neferefre. The entrance at the north side is a short descending corridor lined with red granite followed by a passageway ending at the burial chamber with its gabled roof comprising large limestone beams. Today these beams are damaged, which weakens the pyramid structure.
Fragments of the sarcophagus were found here in the burial chamber, when it was first entered by John Shae Perring in the mid 19th borchardf. He estimated the size of the largest blocks at 35 feet by 9 feet by 12 feet. One end of these blocks was tapered so the estimated volume is 95 cubic meters or 2. A number of officials serving Sahure during his lifetime are known from their tombs.
Sahure’s most immediate legacy is his funerary cult, which continued until the end of the Old Kingdom some years after his death. At least 22 agricultural estates were established to produce the goods necessary for this cult.
Borchardt Sahure 47.
Another legacy of Sahure is his pyramid complex: The statue was located in the temple of Karnak and it probably belonged to a group of portraits of deceased kings.
Sahure is shown enthroned, wearing a pleated skirt and a round curly wig.
Both sides of the throne bear inscriptions identifying the work as a portrait of Sahure made on the orders of Senusret I. Another indication that Sahure had not faded from memory during the Middle Kingdom is the Westcar Papyruswhich was written during the 12th Dynasty. Borchardy papyrus tells the mythical story of the origins of the Fifth Dynasty, presenting kings Userkaf, Sahure and Neferirkare Kakai as three brothers, sons of Ra and a woman named Rededjet.
As a deceased king, Sahure continued to receive religious offerings during the New Kingdom. This is best attested by the “Karnak king list”, a list of royal ancestors inscribed on the walls of the Karnak temple during the reign of Thutmose III of the 18th Dynasty.
Unlike other ancient Egyptian king lists, the kings are not listed in chronological order. This is because the purpose of the list was purely religious rather than historical: During the 19th Dynasty, prince Khaemwaseta borchaedt of Ramesses IIundertook restoration works throughout Egypt on pyramids and temples which had fallen into ruin. Inscriptions on the stone cladding of the pyramid of Sahure show that it was restored shaure this time.
Activities seemed to have continued on-site for a long time, as shown by graffiti dating from the 26th Dynasty — BC until the Ptolemaic period —30 BC. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Additionally, a story from the Westcar Papyrus tells of a magician foretelling Khufu of the future demise of his lineage as three brothers will be born of the god Ra and a woman named Rededjet and reign successively as the first three kings of the Fifth Dynasty.
Following the discoveries of Verner and El-Awady in Abusir this theory was abandoned and the real role of Khentkawes remains difficult to ascertain. This is in part because the translation of her title is problematic and because the details of the transition from the 4th to the Fifth Dynasty are not yet clear.
In particular, an ephemeral pharaoh Djedefptah may have ruled sqhure Shepseskaf and Userkaf. Egyptian Art in the Age of the Pyramids.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art. The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: In Feldherr, Andrew; Hardy, Grant. Beginnings to AD Archived sahurr the original PDF on Blatt 1—15 in German. Breasted, James Henry Ancient records of Egypt historical documents from earliest times to the Persian conquest, collected edited and translated with commentary, vol. I The First to the Seventeenth Dynasties.
The University of Chicago Press.